Hi and welcome to the forum
Your project does sound very cool, and from what I understand you want to try do somethingsimilar to the vicon tracking system? As I dont think current technology is powerful enough to do all that onboard a drone in an indoor environment on a small drone.
Although arducopter is a great platform for development, I feel that its better suited to larger outdoor drones that are largely reliant on GPS. My suggestion is you consider something like the crazyflie 2.0, as its actualy designed as a flying development platform, and its small enough to fly indoors.
In terms of a research starting point you could have a look at SLAM, or maybe using something like a kinect to track your drone in 3D space?
Otherwise do keep us updated as to the progress of your project if you do get started on it. My main focus is computer vision so if you need any help with that just let me know.